What is LAN?
Local Area Network is localize Computer network use for communication between host systems, In LAN each device shared the same IP address scheme. For example if we are using a network 172.16.0.0/24 then all the IP devices computer, printers, IP phones etc have the IP from same network-range.
LAN (Local Area Network refers to a particular region interconnected by multiple computers into computer groups. “A region” refers to the same office, the same building, the same company and in the same schools, generally within a radius of several kilometers. You can provide different services like document management, application software sharing, printer sharing, scanner sharing, workgroup scheduling, e-mail and fax communications services and other VOIP and unified communication.
LAN has the following characteristics:
- Coverage area is generally a few kilometers.
- Using different dedicated transmission medium you can achieve the transmission rate of 1 Mb/s to 100 Mbit / sec or higher, with the further development of LAN technology is currently being developed toward higher speed (e.g. 155Mbps, 655Mbps and 1000Mbps etc.).
- In LAN you can run the multiple devices to share a transmission medium.
- You can use the different topology mainly bus and ring in LAN.
- The communication quality is better IN LAN, the transmission error rate are low as compare to WAN.
- LAN support a variety of communications transmission medium such as a Ethernet cable (thin cable, thick cable, and twisted pair), fiber and wireless transmission.
- A LAN usually has low cost, installation, expansion and maintenance and LAN installation is relatively simple, good scalability.
Functions of LAN
LAN’s main function is to provide resource sharing and mutual communication, which provides the following main services:
- The sharing of resources, including hardware resource sharing, file sharing, and software inventory data sharing. Users can share a network system software and application software.
- Data transfer and e-mail: Data and network file transfer is an important feature of modern LANs not only transmit files, data, information, but also can send voice, images.
- Improve the reliability of the computer system. LAN computers can back each other, avoiding the stand-alone system without backup failure may occur when system failures, greatly improving the reliability of the system, particularly in the industrial process control, real-time data processing and other applications, is particularly important.
- Easy to distributed processing: Use of network technology you can have more than one computer connected to a high-performance computer system (Server) through a certain algorithm, the larger global issues points to a different computer to complete.
Hardware used for creating LAN:
The basic device used for creating a local area network is Switch, which is used for connecting the different nodes among each other. There are two ways for connecting the device with a LAN i.e.
A local are network may also consist of both. it depends upon the number of nodes in LAN, functionality and complexity, multiple-switches and router might be required. They other devices for LAN includes servers and routers. Routers are used for connecting different LANs or used for enabling different services within the LAN. For providing the different services and application access, we used servers with the LAN.