Cisco 3 layer Hierarchical Network Model | Core |Distribution | Access

Cisco 3-layer model

Cisco three Layer Model: Cisco has three layer hierarchical network model that consist of following layers: Core Layer Distribution Layer Access Layer This three layered model is the basic foundation for creating small and larger Networks. Using this we can design a hierarchical network with dividing the network into 3 different layers which also help …

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Cisco PPDIOO | A Network Life Cycle


What is Cisco PPDIOO? PPDIOO (Prepare, Plan, Design, Implement, Operate, and Optimize) is the network life cycle that is defined by Cisco. PPDIOO has the six phases or steps for designing a network and these design phases are as following: Prepare Plan Design Implement Operate Optimize   Advantages/ benefits of PPDIOO: The main advantage of PPDIOO …

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OSI Network model | Open Systems Interconnection model

What is OSI model?  OSI (Open System Interconnection) model for networking is a seven layers model which is defines by international standard Organization. The goal of ISO is to enhance the inter-operability and functionality between different application venders and also make easier for IT professionals to focus on layers while designing the network.OSI model is …

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What is WAN and its features

What is Wide area network? Wide area network is collection of different local area networks, connect different LAN and WAN with each other, typically contain a country or region.  Internet is the biggest example of wide area network. WAN include ISP cloud which have high speed links, branch offices connected with ISDN, ATM, BRI/PRI, E1/T1, …

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What is Local Area Network | LAN Features, Advantages & Characteristics

Local Area Network

What is LAN? Local Area Network is localized Computer networks used for communication between host systems. In LAN, each device shared the same IP address scheme. For example, if we use a network, all IP devices, computers, printers, IP phones, etc have the IP from the same network range. LAN (Local Area Network) refers …

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What is Frame-relay Hub and Spoke Topology?

Frame relay Hub and spoke

Frame-relay Hub and spoke: Frame-relay Hub and spoke topology is also known as star topology, which have a single hub or central router provides access to different core services and all other routers are connected to this hub are called spoke. Some characteristic of frame-relay Hub and spoke topology includes: You can easily manage hub …

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What is Frame-relay | frame relay Features

Frame-relay: FR (Frame Relay) is a packet-oriented WAN technology use for connecting remote offices over the internet or WAN. Frame-relay consider to be cost effective solution and most ISPs across the globe provide frame relay services. Frame-relay provides the dedicated connection called the PVC which is used to form logical end-to-end links mapped over a physical network. …

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SDSL (Symmetric digital subscriber line)

What is SDSL? SDSL is the type of DSL but it support more data rate over the copper phone line and have same data rates for upstream and downstream. SDSL supports the data rates up to 3mbs. SDSL works by transferring digital pulses in the high-frequency region of copper wires and cannot work at the same time …

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What is Response time in networking?

response time

Response time In data networks, response time is the amount of time when an individual user enters a commands or press a particular key stock on their work station and when that particular command get executed. You need to minimize the response time for better network performance. You can accomplish low response time by using …

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What is Throughput in networking?

Throughput In networking throughput is amount of data that you can transfer from source to destination in particular give time. For this transmission, data may be travel through a physical or logical link, or pass through a certain network devices. The most commonly used unit for throughput is bits per second. Throughput of network devices is …

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Intra-controller Roaming in Wireless network

Intra controller Roaming

What is Intra controller Roaming? Intra-controller Roaming is a type of roaming in wireless network and it happen when a wireless client move their association from one access point to other access point but both access points are connected to same wireless LAN controller. Wireless LAN controller (WLC) update the new wireless access point association in …

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Inter-controller Roaming

What is Inter controller Roaming: Inter controller Roaming is type of roaming that happen in wire network when a wireless client move its association from one access point to other access point that is connected to different wireless LAN controller. For more understanding please consider the figure, it happen when the client move from AP2’s …

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ADSL (Asymmetric digital subscriber line) | Advantages


What is ADSL? Asymmetric digital subscriber line is an emerging technology and use to put more data on the existing copper telephone line. ADSL requires special ADSL modem and it is popular DSL solution all over the world. It is called asymmetric digital subscriber line because it uses the same bandwidth for upload and download-link. It uses …

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